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(Posted 1 May 2015) 

Security Implications of Future Energy Production Patterns

The U.S. regional presence and the security of logistics and supply lines in the PACOM AOR should be evaluated based on the security implications of future development of energy resources in the Asia-Pacific region. 

BP’s latest Energy Outlook estimates that 45% of the new energy production between now and 2035 will be coming from the Asia-Pacific region. Combined with the territorial claims in the South China Sea and the East China Sea, the prospect of deepwater fossil fuel resources could significantly affect the security environment in the PACOM AOR. China’s outward energy policy and eagerness to invest in energy development projects in the region will be a major factor in how these resources get developed. This research project will focus on understanding the security implications for the development of future energy resources in the Asia-Pacific region. The study also should evaluate how U.S. regional presence and the security of logistics and supply lines in the PACOM AOR will be affected by Chinese activities to secure. Likewise, the study should assess any implications for the U.S. to quickly access fuel in sufficient volumes when regional energy production and/or infrastructure may be developed and owned by China.

This research project will:

  1. focus on understanding the security implications for the development of future energy resources in the Asia-Pacific region,
  2. evaluate how U.S. regional presence and the security of logistics and supply lines in the PACOM AOR will be affected by Chinese activities to secure, and
  3. assess implications for the U.S. to quickly access fuel when regional energy production and/or infrastructure may be developed and owned by China.

(Posted 1 May 2015) 

DoD Reliance on Commercial Shipping

This project effort will evaluate the need for organic Navy oilers that result from disruptions in the availability of commercial tankers due to the threat of combat, actual combat, or the application of economic and/or political coercion.  

The U.S. military relies on the commercial shipping to transport and deliver fuel to the PACOM AOR. Refined petroleum products, namely JP8, JP5, F76, and JetA, typically arrive for delivery defense fuel storage points (DFSP) via commercial tankers. Once inside the AOR, commercial tankers and Navy oilers shuttle fuel between these storage locations and points closer to the point of consumption (i.e. airbases, ports, and deployed naval forces). In fact, a recent DLA-Energy wargame raised questions over reliance on commercial tanking. This research effort will evaluate the need for organic Navy oilers that result from any disruption in the availability of commercial tankers due to the threat of combat, actual combat, or the application of economic and/or political coercion. The study also should evaluate the force protection required to ensure protect such shipping and the effects of these diverted forces on the ability to the Joint Force to meet mission objectives in a timely and effective manner.

This project will:

  1. evaluate the need for Navy oilers to replace commercial tankers due to the threat of combat, actual combat, or economic and/or political coercion, and
  2. evaluate the force protection required and the effects of diverted forces on the Joint Force to meet mission objectives effectively.
 

(Posted 1 May 2015)

Allied Fuel and Logistics Contributions to U.S. Forces in the Pacific

This research project will evaluate how Allied fuel supply and logistics capabilities may affect the supportability of U.S. operations and/or the number of days required to develop secure and sustainable supply chains to deployed forces.

The US military relies on Allies in the Asia-Pacific region, especially for logistics and fuel supply.  For example, South Korea’s refineries are a vital provider of military spec fuels, while Japan provides many defense fuel storage points (DFSP) that are important for the US military Petroleum War Reserve Stock (PWRS). The PWRS is sized in order to provide enough fuel stocks for a certain number of days based on the most stressing OPLAN data. During any contingency, Allies may also contribute fuel logistics and equipment available to reduce U.S. logistics requirements and/or increase operational flexibility (force size, tempo of operations) before drawing on war reserve stocks. This research project will evaluate how Allied fuel supply and logistics capabilities may affect the supportability of U.S. operations as well as the number of days required to develop secure and sustainable supply chains to deployed forces.

This research project will how Allied fuel supply and logistics capabilities can affect U.S. operations and the number of days required to develop secure and sustainable supply.

MAGTF

  • Future Operational Concepts: Distributed and Enhanced MAGTF Operations require agile, highly responsive, and flexible logistics support. Energy demand of vehicles and equipment complicates and constrains operations. Examine the challenges, and potential energy solutions to supporting future ops..
  • Energy and Combat Effectiveness: Examine the impact/implications of the current energy demand within each element of the MAGTF. To include operational decision making, mission planning, logistics planning and requirements.
  • Lightening the burden: Develop new approaches to lighten the MAGTF by utilizing energy efficient planning, management, practices, as well as equipment.

Environmental Control Strategy

Environmental control accounts for about 60% of ground fuel requirements. Heating and cooling requirements are written for equipment and personnel, yet the strategy is most often to heat/cool the volumes of air surrounding equipment and personnel. How can the Marine Corps mitigate this problem?

Map the Expeditionary Energy Modeling Space

Energy modeling requirements exist across the modeling hierarchy, spanning engineering-level models to campaign-level models. Though it is generally accepted that no single model can effectively span the entire hierarchy, each can contribute to a cohesive modeling strategy. Energy modeling capabilities are numerous with diverse focus areas in both industry and the Department of Energy. Additionally, there are multiple energy models being developed within DoD, as well as non-energy models that incorporate some aspect of energy. A mapping of all energy modeling capabilities that can contribute to expeditionary energy would help facilitate a cohesive USMC Energy Modeling Strategy. A cohesive energy modeling strategy would ensure that the Corps modeling needs are clearly defined and that current modeling capabilities are accurately categorized in accordance with those needs.  

Red Teaming Expeditionary Energy Planning at MEF/MEB Levels

Commandant's Planning Guidance 2010 (Gen Amos) directed CG MCCDC & CG TECOM to develop a plan for instituting a Red Team at each MEF and in each deploying MEB. CG TECOM and President MCU will further develop the curriculum to institutionalize Red Teaming within resident SNCO and Officer (ClS, IlS, TlS and SAW) PME courses. The purpose of this cell is to challenge prevailing notions, rigorously test current TTPs and counter group-think. Using MCPP and the E2W2 ICD as a guide, how can Red Teaming affect the # 1 gap (Planning)?  

ExFOB Process as a Model for Accelerated and/or Improved Warfighting Capability Development in the post-OIF/OEF Marine Corps

The ExFOB process was established to begin the rapid infusion of non-traditional expeditionary energy equipment and approaches in support of immediate needs and the longer-term USMC Expeditionary Energy Strategy implementation. The ExFOB process provides a means of quickly informing industry and USMC materiel requirements, mitigating investment decision risk, and building confidence in new technology that supports changes in the way the Marine Corps employs energy on the battlefield, and which may not otherwise be considered in the natural course of capabilities development. The ExFOB process is focused on closing materiel gaps in the Marine Corps' Initial Capabilities Document for Expeditionary, Energy, Water, and Waste (E2W2) by assessing the technological realm of the possible, exploring available technology alternatives, and exploiting the lessons learned and data collected to inform the deliberate requirements process. In some instances, the process can also support rapid solution development and delivery to the operating forces to meet unusual and compelling needs. Finally, the ExFOB process creates a means of seizing opportunities created by rapid technological change.

  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the ExFOB process as a means of bridging the temporal, organizational, materiel, and process gaps between the urgent and deliberate capabilities development processes.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the ExFOB process as a catalyst for organizational change and project the potential of an ExFOB-like approach to improve the effectiveness of Marine Corps capabilities development and acquisition across the warfighting functions.  

Policy Considerations for Alternative Energies

What are the policy implications that need to be considered for alternative energy sources on the battlefield, such as the use of radioisotopes? Are there political considerations in utilizing radioisotopes across borders, in areas of operation around the world, with partner nations and allies? What are the safety, political, social concerns, prejudices and biases? What are the environmental implications for alternative energies? 

Develop a Spreadsheet Instrument for Energy Use

Develop tools to give Commanders control of their energy use.   Insights into past/current/future fuel and power requirements can provide Commanders insights to better achieve their mission.  What information do they need, in what form, to manage resources to better achieve mission goals, extend operating reach/days of supply, and mitigate and manage operational risk.   Create a tool—spreadsheet—to support Commander decision making and management of energy resources, and translate fuel/energy management in terms of mission advantage gained. 

Water and Waste

Over 70 percent of the logistics required to sustain Marine Corps expeditionary forces ashore is liquid, fuel and water.  This demand for energy and water increases the logistics sustainment requirements of the operating forces, limits the operational reach of Marines on the battlefield and puts more Marines at risk.

  • What water waste streams provide the highest potential payoff - reduce trucks on road - if reduced or eliminated?  What technology is available today with potential for expeditionary applications to minimize water waste streams within constraints of current force structure?
    • Identify waste-to-energy conversion potential for Marine units under varying conditions (100 - 600 personnel in an austere environment).  What technology solutions should be considered to convert waste to usable energy while remaining protective of human health and the environment.  What policy/practices changes can drive to reduce waste?

 

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