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Students, researchers and practitioners are using MP to:

  • better understand and test requirements in the context of environment behaviors and interactions with the system
  • expose system behaviors using executable models, before more expensive types of testing
  • automatically generate an exhaustive set of use cases for inspection by stakeholders, who understand example instances better than abstract formalisms
  • recognize errors/deficiencies early and reduce system development cost
  • automate testing and verification of models using exhaustive, systematic testing with assertion checking
  • enhance and extend existing modeling methodologies and frameworks, providing greatly expanded coverage of scenarios

Behavior models expressed in notations and frameworks such as the System Modeling Language (SysML), Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF), and the Unified Profile for DODAF and MODAF (UPDM) may be extended and improved by running them through an MP verification & validation (V&V) analysis.

Application Domain Examples

See below for example MP models in different application domains.

Mission Engineering

This solution-neutral operational process model of a Search and Rescue (SAR) mission shows the required interactions among five participants.

(Preloaded Example 8 on MP-Firebird)

Business Process / Workflow Modeling

This model of the spiral software process illustrates the use of MP to model high level processes employed by individual roles within an organization.

(Preloaded Example 16 on MP-Firebird)


A model of an overdose situation to inform policy on rescue medication administration turns up an unintended scenario in which the victim receives the rescue medication twice from lack of coordination.

Autonomous Systems

A UAV is decomposed into subfunctions that interact with the operator and the environment. Automated annotations describe important aspects of this scenario.


A commercial flight is modeled, showing interactions among passenger, pilot and controller (top row) across seven phases (left column).


A scenario from a model of a spacecraft communications system as it approaches to dock with the International Space Station (ISS). The absence of this particular scenario from the model was noticed and subsequently corrected by the student author.

Software Architecture

A scenario from an MP model of an unconstrained stack (allowed to try to pop an empty stack) illustrates how to pinpoint events that violate a certain property, and how to annotate these particular events in the trace with additional messages.

(Preloaded Example 7 on MP-Firebird)

Networks & Communications

An example scenario from a model of network ring, where each node interacts with its left and right neighbors only.

(Preloaded Example 12 on MP-Firebird)

General Systems and Emergence Research

An MP model of the Cycles isomorphic systems process (ISP) containing two of at least five cycles patterns shown to arise from a small model of 6 lines of code.



A scenario from a model of an autonomous automobile's interactions with its user.



A scenario from a model of a manufacturing process.


A scenario from a model of a logistics process (two producers, transportation, supply office, and two consumers).

(Preloaded Example 19 on MP-Firebird)


A scenario from a model of a decision making process in the context of a medical procedure (a physician in the leader role, and nurses in the subordinate role).


Power & Energy

An example scenario from a model of a pressurized water reactor helps its author spot the need for a control station root to help identify the exact source of a system failure.

Sports & Entertainment

An example model from a car race model with two cars and a judge.

(Preloaded Example 5 on MP-Firebird)



Lifecycle Phase Application Examples

Concept of Operations

Use MP during concept development to create a model of the problem.  Show the MP event traces to stakeholders for feedback on whether or not the model accurately and fully captures the problem to be solved.  Fix misinterpretations about the problem. 

Requirements & Architecture

Use MP to describe the architecture-level behavior that solves the problem of interest.  Formulate and test the logic, completeness and consistency of requirements for the system under design. Fix misinterpretations and errors pertaining to the architecture of behavior of the high level elements.

Detailed Design

Use MP to describe the detailed behaviors as allocated to software, hardware, people, facilities, or some combination thereof.    Fix errors in component behaviors.

Integration, Test, and Verification

Use MP to systematically create an exhaustive set of test cases up to the user-defined scope limit, from which a subset may be selected and prioritized for live testing.  Use live test results to validate synthetic test results that were obtained through simulation only.  Use simulation results to verify that scenarios that could not be live-tested also meet requirements.

System Verification & Validation

MP helps us make more complete predictions about possible alternative system behaviors, learn about critical issues are concerning interactions among parts of the system and between the system and its environment, and exclude undesired behaviors from the design before their manifestation in the actual system.  With MP, verification & validation of the system model is concurrent with model development throughout every phase of the lifecycle.  During this phase the actual system behavior is checked against the MP-modeled system behavior.

Operations & Maintenance

An MP model of a fielded system may be used as a "digital twin" to verify and validate proposed changes to the configuration before actually making those changes in the real system.

Material contained herein is made available for the purpose of peer review and discussion and does not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of the Navy or the Department of Defense.

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