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Network-Optional Warfare (NOW)

  • Major vulnerabilities: naval forces conducting constant communications lack stealth and become dependent on continuous data exchange.
  • Agile EMCON: "Radio silence" emissions control with judicious use of low-probability of intercept (LPI) communication channels, such as optical.
  • Messaging maturity: efficient compression and a coherently defined signal book, aiding remote command initiative and operational freedom of action.
  • Ethical Human Supervision of Autonomy: allow unmanned systems with potential for lethal force to operate reliably at a distance, directed by humans to follow same tasking + constraints as any other trusted participant.

Network-Centric Warfare (NCW)

  • “Seeks to translate an information advantage, enabled in part by information technology, into a competitive advantage through the robust networking of well-informed geographically dispersed forces.”
  • “This networking—combined with changes in technology, organization, processes, and people—may allow new forms of organizational behavior.”
  • Source:  Network-Centric Warfare, Wikipedia


Operational emphasis: opportunity to restore naval covertness and potential for tactical surprise, enabling fluid operations by fleet and marine operations forces across NCW and NOW.

Operational View (OV-1) shows line-of-sight (LOS) optical signaling via Quick Reaction (QR) codes and Digital Flashing Light (DFL). Only two radio frequency (RF) lightning bolts!