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Naval forces do not have to be engaged in constant centralized communication.  Deployed Navy vessels have demonstrated independence of action in stealthy coordinated operations for hundreds of years. 

Littoral operations, deployable unmanned systems, and a refactored force mix for surface ships pose a growing set of naval challenges and opportunities.  Network-optional warfare (NOW) precepts include Efficient Messaging, Optical SignalingSemantic Coherence and Ethical Human Supervision of Autonomy for deliberate, stealthy, minimalist tactical communications.

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