Bernardo Michel Luhrs

2016 SEAP Intern

 

Services Provided By Additive Manufacturing

 

The Medical Industry - Surgeons can produce mockups of parts of their patient that need to be operated on. With 3D printing, it will be possible to make a part from scratch in just few hours. It enables developers and designers to move from the flat monitor screen to the exact three-dimensional part. Additive Manufacturing has led to the development of many new advances in the medical industry by replicating vital organs or bones to provide interior support to those who need it. Ear cartilage, heart valves, windpipes, pieces of cranium, hip replacements, synthetic skin, and prosthetic limbs are just a few examples of the up and coming industry advancements.

 

By the printer method, researchers have been able to use digital cameras to capture the likeness of an injured area, along with the patient’s skin tone, to create a digital model of the needed part before sending it off to a ZCorp Z510 color 3D printer.

 

The Aeroplane Industry - General Electric is making a radical departure from the way it has traditionally manufactured things. Its aviation division, the world’s largest supplier of jet engines, is preparing to produce a fuel nozzle for a new aircraft engine by printing the part with lasers rather than casting and welding the metal.

 

Recently, NASA’s rocket engine injector made from a 3D printer passed a major hot fire test. In the test, the rocket engine injector generated 10 times more thrust than any injector made from 3D printing in the past.

 

Artwork - 3D printing allows artists to create objects that would be incredibly difficult, costly, or time intensive using traditional processes.

 

Fashion - Jewelry makers were some of the first to use 3D printing in their manufacturing process, however they do not use metal printers, but rather ones that use wax. In a process called “investment casting” a piece of jewelry is sculpted or printed out of wax. Plaster is then poured on either side. Molten metal is poured onto the wax which melts out leaving a metal version of your wax sculpt in its place in the plaster. This piece is then finished and polished by a jeweler.

 

With the use of additive manufacturing technology, businesses are able to print the frames to glasses and sunglasses, although they are still unable to 3d print the lens.

 

Companies are now able to scan the their consumers to provide a personalized custom product that is meant to match the exact dimensions necessary for a particular person. Clothing is now also being designed and created through the use of 3d printers.

 

Home Decor - Home goods are structurally simple but endlessly decorative and are perfect matches for 3D printing.

 

Cooking - Researchers at Cornell University’s Fab@Home lab demonstrated a printer that could print foods with the amount of nutritional value specified for a specific person with cookies. Two people fed information about their height, weight and BMI into the printer, which baked two deceptively identical-looking snowflake-shaped cookies that actually comprised different ingredients based on each person’s nutritional requirements.

 

Space Industry - The space agency is particularly interested in 3D printers, considering how much easier it would be to send one of those into space along with dehydrated ingredients instead of bulkier prepared foods. Long-distance space travel requires food with 15-plus years of shelf life, and the printer ingredients could last up to 30 years.

 

The Music Industry - With the technology presented through 3d printers, artists are now able to replicate instruments such as guitars to create fully conventional and working instruments that can be played.

 

Automobiles - Additive Manufacturing has the capability to produce working auto parts, which can be used to replace any damaged or broken parts or to construct an entirely new vehicle.

 

General Motors used stereolithography, specialized software, math data and laser sintering to build parts out of liquid resin in order to make improvements to the 2014 Chevrolet Malibu. The parts were also lighter weight so that it gives the Malibu an improved fuel economy.

 

Jim Kor and his team of engineers are building a whole vehicle with 3D printers called the Urbee 2. The body of the original Urbee was made through the use 3D printing. However, the Urbee 2 as a whole will be mostly 3D printed. The Urbee 2 will also look more like a production-ready car compared to the original.

Kor’s team will be driving the Urbee 2 from New York to San Francisco upon completion and is expected to use less energy than most other production cars. Their goal is to use 10 U.S. gallons of gas for the whole trip.

 

Dental Industry - By combining oral scanning, CAD/CAM design and 3D printing, dental labs can accurately and rapidly produce crowns, bridges, stone models and a range of orthodontic appliances.

 

 

Clothing:

 

The small startup Continuum Fashion recently announced its first 3D-printed bikini, along with a range of other printed items of clothing including shoes and dresses, which has caused a real stir in the fashion industry. The groundbreaking product is created from solid nylon, called Nylon 12, and upon close inspection consists of tiny circles of plastic that are stuck together in an intricate pattern.

 

Kerrie Luft, a British designer, recently designed a whole range of shoes using the technology, which were displayed at Selfridges in Oxford Street in March 2013. She initially began using 3D printing to visualise her designs without having to create a costly mould, which is another benefit that the technology can have for designers. Her striking designs are now proving to be a hit, and even Björk has ordered a pair.

 

Nike made headlines in February 2013 when it unveiled its Vapor Laser Talon American football boots, which are the first boots to come with cleats that have been created using a 3D printer. The company used selective laser sintering (SLS) technology to fuse the plastic together. Some of the advantages are that the final boot is very light, and it was also very quick to create the cleats.

 

Construction:

 

The Forbidden City for the Ming exhibition in Amsterdam is being constructed through the use of 3d printers. The project consists of a total of 980 separate buildings and it is the first time that a complete city is being made into a scale model using a 3D printer.

 

For large companies, concept modeling within departments — or even in individual cubicles — is a way to hone ideas before presenting them to superiors. 3D printed concept models are valuable communication tools, conveying ideas to colleagues, clients and marketers in a way that a computer model never could.

 

The use of 3D printing in architecture is still small as logistics are being ironed out, but a new proof of concept has just been unveiled. The 250-square-metre space (2,700 square foot) is what Dubai's Museum of the Future project is calling the world's first 3D-printed office building. China unveiled the world's first 3D printed office building and mansion in early 2015.

 

Contour Crafting (CC) is a layered fabrication technology developed by Dr. Behrokh Khoshnevis of the University of Southern California. Contour Crafting technology has great potential for automating the construction of whole structures as well as sub-components. Using this process, a single house or a colony of houses, each with possibly a different design, may be automatically constructed in a single run, embedded in each house all the conduits for electrical, plumbing and air-conditioning.

 

Firearms:

 

Cody Wilson and a small group of friends who call themselves “Defense Distributed” launched an initiative they’ve dubbed the “ Wiki Weapon Project.” They’re seeking to raise $20,000 to design and release blueprints for a plastic gun anyone can create with an open-source 3D printer known as the RepRap that can be bought for less than $1,000.  Anyone with a 3d printer can turn the project’s CAD designs into an operational gun capable of firing a standard .22 caliber bullet, all in the privacy of their own garage.

 

Space:

 

The 3D Printing In Zero-G Technology Demonstration serves as a proof-of-concept test of the properties of melt deposition modeling additive manufacturing in the microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS). The lessons learned from this technology demonstration can be applied in the next generation of melt deposition modeling in the permanent NanoRacks Additive Manufacturing Facility (AMF), as well as for any future additive manufacturing technology. This includes any future additive manufacturing technologies NASA may plan to use, such as metals or electronics in-space manufacturing, on both the ISS and Deep Space Missions.

 

On 26 February 2013, architecture firm Architecture Et Cetera (A-ETC) announced their concept of for a 3D-printed Moon base that can be built with lunar dust (regolith). The concept promises a sustainable human habitat on Lunar South Pole. The SinterHab construction process is based on the Microwave Sinterator Freeform Additive Construction System (MS-FACS), proposed by scientists at NASA JPL, and a large six-legged multi-purpose robot called ATHLETE (All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer)  equipped with a microwave printer to create walls and domes. The SinterHab concept promises sustainable construction of lunar base at low cost, low environmental impact, and reduced complexity relative to concepts using Earth-sourced materials.

 

Marine Life:

 

Reef Arabia, in collaboration with SOI, 3D program specialist James Gardiner, and rapid manufacturing experts   DShape , is pioneering a new 3D printed reef unit made of non-toxic patented sandstone material. Two of these 3D printed reefs— weighing 1,100 pounds—were sunk off the coast of Bahrain last fall.

“Sandstone, unlike concrete, is closer to a natural earth rock and has a neutral pH surface which makes it more attractive to coral larvae looking for a home,” Lennon says. And the “bumpy, knobby bits” on the sandstone units provide refuge for the common snapper and generate current eddies and multiple horizontal surfaces that coral larvae seem to prefer.

The 3D printing technology has allowed the Reef Arabia team to create the more intricate designs found in natural coral structures. “With 3D printing we can get closer to natural design because of its ability to produce very organic shapes and almost lay down material similar to how nature does it,” Lennon says.

Another advantage 3D printed reefs have over traditionally molded concrete – it’s easier to build diversity into a 3D printed model and much easier to replicated quickly. “We could even generate a 3D image file of a natural reef and then print it,” Lennon says.

 

constructed-reef1.jpg

 

Artwork and Museum Restoration:

 

PEM’s Director of Integrated Media Jim Olson came up with the unusual idea to create a 3D printed replica of the maquette. 'My first thought on hearing the disappointing news that the maquette could not travel was, “Well, why don’t we just 3D print a model of it.” While once the technical wizardry of sci-fi movies, 3-D digital printing is now ubiquitous with wide scale applications in everything from prosthetic design to airplane and car parts. In this case, my main concerns were the fragility and complexity of the maquette,’ Olson explains.

 

Closely working with James DeYoung, senior conservator at the Milwaukee Art Museum, and industrial designer Andrew Camardella, they made a very detailed scan of the maquette in Milwaukee. This process took a full day, and relied on projecting a grid over the maquette and capturing it from all angles and perspectives with a digital camera. Andrew Camardella subsequently spent 35 hours processing these scans into a 3D printable digital model that did justice to the original piece.

 

Sources:

http://www.3ders.org/articles/20150714-museum-uses-3d-printing-to-take-fragile-maquette-by-thomas-hart-benton-on-tour.html

http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=8132

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http://www.stratasys.com/industries/dental

http://blogs.ptc.com/2013/08/01/underwater-city-3d-printed-reef-restores-bahrains-marine-life/

http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments/1115.html

http://www.spacesafetymagazine.com/space-exploration/moon-landing/sinterhab-3d-printed-moon-base-concept-lunar-dust/

http://www.forbes.com/sites/andygreenberg/2012/08/23/wiki-weapon-project-aims-to-create-a-gun-anyone-can-3d-print-at-home/#677a71c85ca6

http://www.lpfrg.com/en/professionals/architects/

http://www.stratasys.com/solutions/rapid-prototyping/concept-modeling

http://www.contourcrafting.org/

http://www.resins-online.com/blog/3d-printed-clothing/